Excited Delirium Education, Research and Information

Headlines

Death by Excited Delirium: Diagnosis or Coverup? full story...

Coroner Rules Cocaine, Not Taser, Killed Prisoner full story...

Detained man's 'drug delirium' full story...

Top chef died after cocaine reaction full story...

Better training 'prevents custody deaths' full story...

Cocaine, Excited Delirium and Sudden Unexpected Death full story...

Publications

Bell LV (1849) On a form of disease resembling some advanced stages of mania and fever.  Am.  J. Insanity 6:97-127.

Caroff, S.N., Campbell, E.C., Sullivan, K.A., 2007. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in elderly patients. Expert Rev. Neurotherapeutics 7, 423-431.

Di Maio TG, and Di Maio VJM (2006) Excited Delirium Syndrome: Cause of Death and Prevention Taylor and Francis, New York.

Friedman, J.H., Feinberg, S.S., Feldman, R.G., 1985. A neuroleptic malignantlike syndrome due to levodopa therapy withdrawal. JAMA 254, 2792-2795.

Karch, S.B.,Stephens, B.G., (1999) Drug abusers who die during arrest or in custody. J R Soc Med, 92(3): p. 110-3.Link to Paper...

Kosten T, and Kleber H (1988) Rapid death during cocaine abuse: a variant of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome?  Am Jl Drug Alcohol Abuse 14:335-346.

Leonard S, Logel J, Luthman D, Kirch D, Casinova M, and Freedman R. (1993) Biological stability of mRNA isolated from human postmortem brain collections.  Biol Psych 33: 456-66. Link to Paper...

Levenson, J.L., 1985. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Am J Psych 142, 1137-1145. Link to Paper...

Mash DC, Pablo J, Ouyang Q, Hearn WL, and Izenwasser S (2002).  Dopamine transport function is elevated in cocaine users.  J. Neurochem., 81:292-300. Link to Paper...

Mash, D.C. Identifying Biochemical Brain Markers in Excited Delirium Deaths. In: Conducted Electrical Weapons: Physiology and Pathology. eds: Mark Kroll & Jeff Ho, Springer Kluwer. (In Press 2008).

Mash D.C, Duque L, Pablo J, Qin Y, Adi N, Hearn W.L, Hyma B.A, Karch S.B, Druid H, Wetli C.V. Brain biomarkers for identifying excited delirium as a cause of sudden death. Forensic Sci. Int. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.05.012. Link... To request the full paper, contact: mbasile@med.miami.edu

Miczek KA, Covington HE, Nikulina EM, and Hammer RP (2004) Aggression and defeat: persistent effects on cocaine self-administration and gene expression in peptidergic and aminergic mesocorticolimbic circuits.  Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews 27:787- 802. Link to Paper...

O’Halloran RL, and Lewman RV (1993) Restraint asphyxiation in excited delirium.  Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol.. 14(4):289-285. Link to Paper...

Reay DT, Howard JD, Fligner CL, and Ward RJ (1988) Effects of positional restraint on oxygen saturation and heart rate following exercise.  Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 9(1):16-18. Link to Paper...


Ruttenber AJ, Lawler-Heavner J, Yin M, Wetli CV, Hearn WL, and Mash DC (1997) Fatal excited delirium following cocaine use: epidemiologic findings provide new evidence for mechanisms of cocaine toxicity. J. Forensic Sci. 42(1):25-31. Link to Paper...


Ruttenber AJ, McAnally H, and Wetli CV (1999) Cocaine-associated rhabdomyolysis and excited delirium: different stages of the same syndrome.  Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol.  20(2):120-127.

Spiehler, V. R. and Reed, D. (1985) Brain concentrations of cocaine and benzoylecgoinine in fatal cases. J. Forensic Sci 30; 1003-1011.

Staley JK, Hearn WL, Ruttenber, AJ, Wetli CV, and Mash DC (1994). High affinity cocaine recognition sites on the dopamine transporter are elevated in fatal cocaine overdose victims. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 271:1678–1685. Link to Paper...

Staley, J.K., Boja, J.W., Carroll, F.I., Seltzman, H.H., Wyrick, C.D., Lewin, A.H., Abraham, P.,Mash, D.C., (1995a) Mapping dopamine transporters in the human brain with novel   selective cocaine analog [125I]RTI-121. Synapse 21(4): 364-72. Link to Paper...

Staley J, Wetli C, Ruttenber A, et al. Altered dopaminergic synaptic markers in cocaine psychosis and sudden death. In: Harris LS, editor. NIDA research monograph no. 153. Baltimore: Government Printing Office; (1995b). p. 491-504.

Stephens BG, Baselt R, Jentzen JM, Karch S, Mash DC, and Wetli CV (2004a) Criteria for the interpretation of cocaine levels in human biological samples and their relation to cause of death. J Forensic Med. Path. 25(1):1-10. Link to Paper...


Stephens BG, Jentzen JM, Karch S, Wetli CV, and Mash DC  (2004b) National Association of Medical Examiners position paper on the certification of cocaine-related deaths.  J. Forensic Med. Path.  25(1):11-13. Link to Paper...


Stratton SJ, Rogers C, Brickett K, and Gruzinski G (2001) Factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium.  Am. J. Emerg. Med. 19:187- 191. Link to Paper...

Strawn, J.R., Keck, P.E., Jr., Caroff, S.N., 2007. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Am J Psych 164, 870-876. Link to Paper...

Sun Y, MacRae TH (2005) The small heat shock proteins and their role in human disease.  FEBS J. 272:2613-2627. Link to Paper...

Wetli CV (2005) Excited Delirium.  In Payne-James J, Byard RW, Corey TS and Henderson C(eds) Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine.  Elsevier Academic Press, p. 276-281.

Wetli CV, and Fishbain DA. (1985).  Cocaine-induced psychosis and sudden death in recreational cocaine users.  J. Forensic Sci. 30(3):873-880.

Wetli CV, Mash DC, and Karch SB. (1996) Cocaine-associated agitated delirium and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome.  Am. J. Emerg. Med. 14(4):425-428. Link to Paper...

Wetli CV, and Natarajan GA (2005) Death in, United States of America.  In Payne-James J Byard RW, Corey TS and Henderson C (eds) Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine.  Elsevier Academic Press, p. 65-73.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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